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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| October  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since September 5, 2018

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Areca nut use and cancer in India
Prakash C Gupta, Cecily S Ray
October 2015, 2(2):140-165
DOI:10.4103/2349-3666.240652  
Areca nut is widely used in India and the consumption has increased over the past two decades, with availability in new dry packaged forms (pan masala, gutka, mawa). Recent reports of increasing mouth cancer incidence have suggested an association with areca nut consumption. Here we have reviewed the evidence for carcinogenicity of areca nut, including epidemiological studies, several animal studies and mechanistic evidence. Studies primarily from India, providing odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks for precancers or cancer with use of areca nut without inclusion of tobacco is the focus of the review. Six case-control studies on oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) had significantly elevated ORs for use of areca nut in various forms. Six case-control studies on head and neck cancers, primarily oral cancer reported elevated ORs for chewing of betel quid without tobacco. Eight case control studies on oral cancer have reported elevated and significant ORs for betel quid with tobacco. A significant risk in oral cancer was noted in gutka users. Animal studies confirmed correlation between development of precancers or cancers and exposure to areca nut or pan masala without tobacco. Mechanistic evidence shows a role for areca nut alkaloids, polyphenols and copper in promoting carcinogenesis. Our review emphasizes control policies on areca nut products and appropriate mass communication programs for awareness of hazards of areca nut with emphasis on areca nut per se.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  3 984 149
Cancer gene therapy: Prospects of using human sodium iodide symporter gene in non-thyroidal cancer
Shruti Dutta, Abhijit De
October 2015, 2(2):198-219
DOI:10.4103/2349-3666.240655  
Gene therapy is one of the promising therapeutic strategies evolved rapidly in the frontier of translational biology in cancer. To overcome the off target effect of conventional cancer therapies it is the most flourishing approach in present epoch. Various researches in this context are ongoing to eradicate devastating cancer cells with minimal or no side effects. Of the various gene therapy protocols developed, a set of genes called suicide genes, are being actively pursued as potential strategy. Briefly, this strategy involves tumor targeted delivery of a therapy/reporter gene to convert a systematically administered pro-drug into a cytotoxic drug which in turn induces tumor cell death. Additionally, advancement in small animal imaging modalities facilitates real-time monitoring of the delivered transgene by using appropriate imaging probe developed against the transgene. Non-invasive monitoring helps to realize precise transgene delivery and also aid to understand therapy response. In this background, we have reviewed potential suicide genes frequently explored for cancer treatment, which supports both diagnostic and therapeutic applications with special emphasis on sodium iodide symporter (NIS). Apart from its natural expression in thyroid, NIS protein expression has raised the possibility of using radioiodide therapy and diagnosis in few non-thyroidal cancers as well. In this review, we also covered various challenges to get NIS gene therapeutics from bench to bedside in various non-thyroidal cancers.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  2 778 141
Microbiota in immune pathogenesis and the prospects for pre and probiotic dietetics in psoriasis
Garima Pandey, Abhay Kumar Pandey, SS Pandey, BL Pandey
October 2015, 2(2):220-232
DOI:10.4103/2349-3666.240656  
Psoriasis is a common autoimmune inflammatory disease wherein pathogenesis is advanced by fundamental genetic predisposition/s in concert with environmental triggers. Inflammation in psoriasis may represent efforts of innate immune system to target pathogens for restoring immune homeostasis. Aberrant microbiota may resist elimination efforts by shear advantage of several fold gene pool as compared to the host. The microbes deregulate gene expression by the molecular insults targeting host immune system. Role of microbiota in autoimmunity dictates establishment of microbiome homeostasis and suppress host immune response; as a treatment approach. Dietary prebiotics and probiotics are of particular interest for prevention and amelioration of autoimmune inflammatory diseases, due to their potential to foster healthy host-microbiome relationship. The rational dietetics aims towards balancing friendly versus enemical microbes via manipulation of gut environment and modulation of immune system to improve regulation of inflammatory and autoimmune mechanisms.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1 899 144
EDITORIAL
Right patient, right diagnosis, right treatment!
Dhananjaya Saranath, Aparna Khanna
October 2015, 2(2):134-139
DOI:10.4103/2349-3666.240651  
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 600 136
REVIEW ARTICLES
Identification of therapeutic targets for cancer: Proteomic technologies and strategies are the key to success
Rukmini B Govekar
October 2015, 2(2):166-178
DOI:10.4103/2349-3666.240653  
With the emergence of the field of ‘omics’ a new era of systematic global profiling of cellular molecules has been initiated in biology. Different ‘omics’ approaches have been extensively used to identify biomarkers for better diagnosis and prognosis, therapeutic strategies and monitoring response to therapy in diverse types of cancers. Proteomics is the approach of choice for identification of therapeutic targets. This is because therapeutic modulation of expression, post-translational modification and activity of a protein can directly rectify the derangement in the disease-causing cellular pathway. The current review scans literature on tumor proteomics to understand the influence of developments in proteomics technology and study approaches on identification of targets for therapy. Diversity of tumor types, molecular heterogeneity in pathologically indistinguishable tumors provides ample challenge to assess the strength of proteomics in identification of drug targets. The review highlights comparative proteomic profiling by gel-based or gel free approach, in tumor and normal tissues or chemo-resistant/sensitive tumor tissues have identified differentiator proteins, with potential as targetsas therapeutic targets. Further, along with evolution in proteomic technologies for identification and quantification of proteins, various tools for functional analysis of proteins have contributed to strategies for target identification. It also suggests that future advances in quantitative, functional and structural proteomics isare necessary to widen the search for therapeutic targets.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 843 127
Genetic markers and evolution of targeted therapy in cancer
Pratibha S Kadam Amare
October 2015, 2(2):179-197
DOI:10.4103/2349-3666.240654  
The advances in biotechnology including high throughput platforms, and bioinformatics has resulted in detailing molecular pathology of various cancers, identifying targets such as fusion genes, chimeric RNA, fusion proteins, amplified gene, genes with point mutation, overexpression or down regulation of RNA, microRNA (miRNA) and aberrant DNA methylation. The genetic markers provide diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic markers, and may also provide predictive markers. Several targeted molecules have been identified as cell surface antigens and tyrosine kinases e. g. FLT3, NPM1, CEBPA and PRAM1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); BCR-ABL1 in chronic myeloid leukemia; JAK2 in chronic myeloproliferative disorders; ALK, EGFR, K-RAS and BRAF in lung cancer; BRAF, KIT in melanoma; HER2 in breast cancer. The driver molecules and their mechanism of actions revealed various oncogenic pathways in the development of effective inhibitor molecules/proteins as targeted therapy, and novel mutations in the genes associated with the inhibitor protein. Targeted cancer therapy aimed to antagonize the deregulated molecule/s, commonly comprises therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. In vitro studies and clinical trials of the inhibitory molecules showed promising results as single drug therapy or in combination with conventional chemotherapy. Further, multiple mutations associated with resistance to targeted therapy were identified, leading to treatment with second line drugs and consequent better prognosis. Further advancements of biotechnology with identification of genetic variation, multiple resistant mutations which help discovery of a cascade of genetic markers with deeper understanding of biology of disease that offers hopes towards identification of development of more efficient targeted therapy with reduced toxicity and resistance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 906 128