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  Most popular articles (Since August 28, 2018)

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Size, site, and signaling: Three attributes of estrogen receptors
Junita Desouza, Sushama Gadkar, Dhanashree Jagtap, Geetanjali Sachdeva
July-December 2019, 6(2):37-48
Estrogens are implicated in a diverse range of functions varying from reproduction, circulation, skeletal health to neuroprotection. Estrogens are also being increasingly recognized for their pathological contribution to cancers of various organs. This has spurred several investigations on estrogen-initiated signaling mechanisms in various cell types in physiological and pathological conditions. Estrogens exert their biological actions through a class of conventional nuclear receptors known as estrogen receptors (ERs), majorly of two subtypes – ERα and ERβ, both encoded by different genes, and each has multiple isoforms. It is reported that different ER subtypes and their specific isoforms have overlapping and nonoverlapping functions. Moreover, ER functions are highly cell-context specific. Thus, it is difficult to propose a unified scheme for estrogen signaling. Another layer of complexity is added by diverse subcellular localization, i.e., nucleus, plasma membrane, and cytosol, of ERs in estrogen-responsive tissues. Size as well as site dictates the sequence of cellular events triggered by estrogen signaling. This review compiles the existing information on different subtypes, different isoforms, and different sites of subcellular localization of ERs.
  6,744 576 2
16S ribosomal RNA gene-based metagenomics: A review
Asmita Kamble, Shriya Sawant, Harinder Singh
January 2020, 7(1):5-11
With the advent of contemporary molecular tools, the conventional microbiological isolation, enrichment techniques, and approaches have changed considerably. Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing have shown that the major percentage of microbial diversity in an ecosystem remain “unculturable” or “as yet uncultivable” due to the lack of information on their biology, limited selection media, and culture conditions that could support their growth. Identifying and knowing more about them have become an important objective in the microbiological research. The ecological, environmental, and functional implications of a microbial ecosystem can be deciphered by knowing its microbial composition and interactions. The areas of whole-cell and targeted gene metagenomics are playing a key role in accomplishing this objective. The present review discusses the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene metagenomics approach, which has found major applications in identifying the composition of a given microbial ecosystem. Different systems, processes, and analysis tools are available to perform 16S rRNA metagenomics; however, there are few concerns that require more investigation to gain the maximum benefit of these techniques.
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Molecular docking study for evaluation of neuroprotective potential of sericin against cerebral stroke and exploring its biomaterial properties
Khushboo Maurya, Anand Kumar Pandey
January 2019, 6(1):17-24
Background: Cerebral stroke, the third leading cause of death worldwide results from the improper blood supply to the brain due to occlusions in the brain arteries. This leads to production of free radicals contributed by cyclo-oxygenases (COX), acid sensing ion channels (ASIC) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) causing adverse conditions of inflammation, oxidative stress, and acidosis leading to neuronal death thereby proving these enzymes as potent targets. Sericin, a 38 amino acid long protein found in silk fiber is known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant property. Aim and Objectives: Inhibition of the above-mentioned targets by silk protein sericin to reduce the pathological features by structural interactions as well as reducing inflammation and oxidative stress due to the natural properties of compound. Methodology: In the present study we studied structural inhibition of effective targets by sericin through molecular docking analysis. Also, the semi crystalline nature of sericin was deduced through in silico XRD spectral analysis. Result: Structural inhibition through molecular docking analysis proved highly efficient inhibition. Also, the in silico XRD spectral analysis proved sericin to be a potential biomaterial for scaffold development. Conclusion: Sericin can not only act as an effective drug against cerebral ischemia but can also be used to develop scaffold to repair damaged brain.
  4,789 490 1
Rainfall and dengue occurrences in India during 2010–2016
Pratip Shil
July-December 2019, 6(2):56-61
Background: A changing climate scenario coincided with the emergence and re-emergence of vectorborne diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. The worldwide resurgence of dengue since 2005 has affected millions and generated huge disease burden, especially in the tropical developing countries including India. While India has a huge burden of dengue with all four serotypes causing outbreaks in different parts of the country, reports on climate and environmental effects on dengue are sparse. Aims and Objectives: To understand the influence of rainfall on dengue occurrences across India between 2010 and 2016, with emphasis on the most affected states. Methods: Dengue occurrence data was obtained by data mining from the NVBDCP and IDSP websites. Area-weighted-rainfall (ARF) were computed from the division-wise data. Statistical analyses performed to analyze the association between annual ARF and dengue occurrences. Spatio-temporal analyses of dengue outbreaks was conducted. Results: Spatio-temporal analyses revealed that high rainfall was positively associated with the number of cases in the northern states (Indo-gangetic Plains) whereas, the reverse was true for the southern (peninsular) states. The number of rural outbreaks of dengue had also been modulated by annual rainfall. Conclusion: Our study revealed the effect of rainfall on dengue in India. We conclude that rainfall influence the dengue occurrences differently in the northern and the southern states of India.
  4,749 507 1
Klotho: An emerging factor in neurodegenerative diseases
Gauri V Pathare, Kavita K Shalia
January 2019, 6(1):1-6
Soluble Klotho protein is present in blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid and works as a humoral factor exerting different biological effects. Several animal studies have demonstrated the association of age-related neurodegeneration with Klotho deficiency. Lower Klotho levels have been reported in patients suffering from cognitive impairment, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Due to its antiaging properties, Klotho is the obvious choice to be studied as a protective/therapeutic agent in neurobiology. In this review, we have attempted to shed light on the different neurodegenerative diseases affected by deficiency of Klotho and its neuroprotective role against pathogenicity of the disease.
  4,588 469 2
Nitrate stress-induced bioactive sulfated polysaccharides from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Jyoti Vishwakarma, Vaishnavi Parmar, Sirisha L Vavilala
January 2019, 6(1):7-16
Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) are anionic carbohydrate polymers synthesized as extracellular or cell wall components by most of the algae and have potent bioactive properties. In the current study, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr) cells were attributed to sodium nitrate stress in concentrations such as 5 mM, 10 mM, 20 mM, 30 mM, and a control to determine the productivity and bioactivity of SPs. SPs are extracted by hot water method using 80% ethanol. The percentage yield of SPs increased with an increase in concentration of sodium nitrate as compared to control. Biochemical analysis of the extract showed an increase in carbohydrate content (22%–95%), uronic acid content (23%–60%), and sulfate content from control to 30 mM NaNO3-treated extracts. The amount of reducing and nonreducing sugars was found to be 6.16% and 89.06%, respectively, while the protein content is ~16%. The antioxidant potential of SPs showed increased antioxidant activity with an increase in concentration of NaNO3 stress. The analysis resulted in maximum chelating activity of 83.73% assayed in concentration range of 1–8 μg/ml, total antioxidant activity of 70.36% in concentration 0.05–2μg/ml, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of 79.52% in concentration 250–1000 μg/ml; reducing potential was observed with the highest absorbance of 0.87; the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity showed the highest activity of 63.61%, while the superoxide scavenging activity was 92% at 0.1–1 μg/ml. Furthermore, Cr-SPs inhibited the growth of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacterial growth as indicated by clear zones that increased in size with an increasing concentration of NaNO3. These results provide opportunities to develop Cr-SPs as natural antioxidant and antibacterial agents.
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Remdesivir and Dexamethasone: The Two Eligible Candidate Drugs Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection
Yusra Binte Sikandar, Ilora Shabnam Kheya, Rashed Noor
July-December 2020, 7(2):29-33
Lots of research based on drug designing as well as in silico study, cell culture/animal model study, and the clinical trials are being conducted perceive the suitable therapeutic drugs and to develop vaccines in order to alleviate the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Although there are still no vaccines, some potential antiviral drugs have been repurposed including remdesivir, chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, ribavirin, favipiravir, cepharanthine, and lopinavir/ritonavir, of which remdesivir has been mostly accepted for the treatment purpose because of its multitarget actions. Besides, the immunosuppressive agent, dexamethasone, evolved with the capacity to protect the severely affected COVID-19 patients from death to some extent. The current review, thus, emphasized on both remdesivir and dexamethasone as the successful remedies for the ongoing pandemic and detected the possible mode of action of dexamethasone.
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Those few horrible days: Premenstrual syndrome
Gurmeet Singh Sarla
January 2020, 7(1):1-4
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a distinct clinical syndrome during the recurrent luteal phase of menstrual cycle wherein there is a significant deterioration in the quality of life due to disruptive physical and psychiatric symptoms caused by an abnormal central nervous system response to the hormonal changes of the female reproductive cycle. It happens in the postovulation phase because estrogen and progesterone levels fall dramatically if there is no pregnancy. Physical symptoms include breast tenderness and bloating sensation, and emotional symptoms may manifest as mood swings, depression or feeling of hopelessness, intense anger and conflict with others, tension, anxiety, irritability, decreased interest in usual activities, difficulty in concentrating, fatigue, and changes in appetite. Symptoms emerge 1–2 weeks before menses and resolve completely with the onset of menses. This review article outlines the pathophysiology, presentation, severity and timing of symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of PMS and reiterates that it is a transient and physiological phase during the menstrual cycle and not a pathological entity.
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Therapeutic benefit of resveratrol in 5-fluorouracil-induced nephrotoxicity in rats
Elias Adikwu, Innocent Biradee, Temitope Omolade Ogungbaike
July-December 2019, 6(2):72-77
Background: The prevention of nephrotoxicity caused by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) can improve patients' adherence to treatment.Aim and Objective: This study assessed the ability of resveratrol (RES) to prevent 5-FU-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male albino rats randomized into eight groups of n = 5 were used. Group A (control) was administered with 0.2 mL of normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.), whereas Groups B-D were administered with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of RES daily for 5 days respectively. Group E was administered with 20 mg/kg of 5-FU ip daily for 5 days. Groups F-H were administered with 10 mg/kg of RES + 20 mg/kg of 5-FU, 20 mg/kg of RES + 20 mg/kg of 5-FU, and 40 mg/kg of RES + 20 mg/kg of 5-FU ip daily for 5 days, respectively. Blood samples were collected after rats were sacrificed and evaluated for serum renal function biomarkers. Kidneys were evaluated for oxidative stress markers and histology. Results: Serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid levels were significantly (P < 0.001) increased, whereas total protein, albumin, potassium, sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate levels were significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in 5-FU-treated rats when compared to control. Kidney superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase levels were significantly (P < 0.001) decreased, whereas malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased in 5-FU-treated rats when compared to control. Furthermore, the kidneys of 5-FU-treated rats showed tubular necroses and atrophic glomeruli. The aforementioned nephrotoxic changes were significantly abrogated in rats supplemented with 10 mg/kg (P < 0.05), 20 mg/kg (P < 0.01), and 40 mg/kg (P < 0.001) of RES when compared to 5-FU. Conclusion: RES may have therapeutic benefit in nephrotoxicity caused by 5-FU.
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Transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 single-nucleotide polymorphism association with oral cancer and In silico identification of small drug-like molecules as inhibitors to transforming growth factor Beta-2 receptor
Shaleen Multani, Hetal Damani Shah, Dhananjaya Saranath
January 2019, 6(1):25-33
Objective: Oral cancer, in India, constitutes 26% of global oral cancer burden. The major risk factors include tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, and human papillomavirus 16/18; however, only 5%–10% of the high-risk individuals develop oral cancer, indicating the role of genomic variants in susceptibility to oral cancer. Conventional treatment options in oral cancer have resulted in relatively poor prognosis and an unmet need of treatment. In silico analysis, therefore, was performed to identify small drug-like molecules as potential inhibitors of transforming growth factor beta-2 receptor (TGFβRII). Materials and Methods: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in 500 histopathologically confirmed oral cancer samples and 500 long-term tobacco users (LTTUs) as controls using allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction or high-resolution melting analysis. The differential frequencies in oral cancer and LTTUs were calculated using SPSS software (version 19), and odds ratio (OR) to indicate risk to oral cancer using Hutchon.net. structure-based virtual screening of drug-like molecules was performed to identify lead inhibitor molecules to TGFβRII using Schrödinger Suite 2015-4. Results: Heterozygous GC genotype of TGFBR2 rs9843143 demonstrated increased risk ([P = 0.011; OR 1.61 [1.25–2.1]) while CC genotype showed decreased risk (P = 0.005; OR 0.61 [0.44–0.83]) to oral cancer. Increased/decreased risk to oral cancer was not observed for the other SNPs. In silico analysis identified six molecules as inhibitors of TGFβRII kinase domain from 17,723 conformers from Maybridge HitFinder library and 2685 conformers from MEGx AnalytiCon natural product library. Conclusion: SNP rs9843143 (TGFBR2) demonstrated a significant association (P < 0.05) with oral cancer and six potential inhibitors of TGFβRII kinase were identified using in silico analysis.
  3,704 342 1
Emotion Regulation in Adolescence: Different Strategies and Associated Functional Connectivity of Brain Regions
Athulya Krishnan
July-December 2020, 7(2):34-39
Adolescence is often characterized as a period of overwhelming sensitive emotions. Additional to the emotional instability, there are rapid changes in the development and the maturation of the brain regions because of the effects of sex hormones. Accordingly, the mismatch maturation rate of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex determines the disrupted functional connectivity between them leading to delayed cognitive responses. As a result of the increased emotional reactivity together with delayed cognitive responses, adolescence is more prone to maladaptive shifts in regulation skills. These shifts in the course of puberty lead to diminished emotion regulation in adolescents. Hence, the ability to execute successful regulatory skills becomes a vital aspect concerning mental well-being. Taken together, the current review evaluates the efficiency of the regulatory skills (strategies) and the associated connectivity of neural networks during emotional regulation in adolescence. Furthermore, the present review correlates the success of emotion regulation with psychiatric symptoms.
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Analysis of spontaneous depolarization-linked hyperpolarizations in mouse detrusor smooth muscle cells
Mithun Padmakumar, Keith L Brain, Rohit Manchanda
July-December 2019, 6(2):49-55
Background: Urinary bladder detrusor smooth muscle cells exhibit spontaneous electrical activities comprising various signal types. Aims and Objectives: This article introduces and analyzes a rare category of signals observed in such activity, named spontaneous depolarization-linked hyperpolarization (sDLH). Materials and Methods: A mouse model was used in the study, where all the occurrences of sDLHs were pooled together from multiple intracellular recording sessions. Four features – (i) resting membrane potential (RMP) (R, in mV), (ii) depolarization amplitude (D, in mV), (iii) hyperpolarization amplitude (H, in mV), and (iv) time course of the hyperpolarization (T, in ms) – were evaluated from all sDLHs. Results: The analysis of results indicated that (a) the signals appear more frequently in cells with higher RMP, (b) the depolarization amplitudes seem to be distributed randomly and have no correlation with other features, (c) hyperpolarization amplitudes show two distinct clusters and exhibit strong correlation with the RMP, and (d) time course of hyperpolarization phase shows no distinct groups and is distributed in a window larger than that of any other signals seen in the intracellular recordings. With the help of the results obtained from the analysis, a hypothesis for the biophysical origin of these signals is proposed. Conclusions: This needs to be tested experimentally, and if proved right, would help extend the boundaries of our current understanding of the detrusor smooth muscle system.
  3,325 287 -
Effect of different thermal change tests of micro tensile strength behavior bio-composite materials; In vitro study
Efe Çetin Yilmaz, Recep Sadeler
January-June 2021, 8(1):14-19
Background: The thermal changes in environments that composite materials are exposed to has a great effect on fatigue and wear behavior. Aim: Micro-cracks and interfacial deformations occur in the composite material structure because of heating and cooling environments occurring on material surfaces. Considering the environment to which bio-composite materials used in the human body are exposed, it is inevitable that they are exposed to a thermal change cycle environment. Material and Method: In this study, the mechanical behaviors of Silorane, X-Trafil and Valux-Plus bio-composite materials were examined after being exposed to thermal cycles in an artificial mouth environment in the temperature range of minimum 5 °C and maximum 65 °C. Micro-tensile strengths of bio-composite materials after thermal cycle test procedures were determined using a universal micro tensile tester device. In addition, microstructural analyzes of bio-composite materials were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Within the scope of the data obtained as a result of this study, it was concluded that the thermal changes in environments significantly affects the micro-shrinkage behavior of bio-composite materials. Conclusion: The behavior of the matrix structure of the composite material significantly affected the formation of micro cracks.
  3,236 254 -
Protective effect of flavonoids from Foeniculum vulgare against ultraviolet-B-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts
Juilee Patwardhan, Purvi Bhatt
July-December 2019, 6(2):62-71
Background: Traditionally, Foeniculum vulgare (fennel seeds) has been used for its antimicrobial, analgesic, antipyretic, antiflatulence, antispasmodic, and antiandrogenic activities. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the protective effect of flavonoids from fennel seeds was investigated against ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation-induced cell damage and oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells. Results: Flavonoid-enriched fraction (FEF) of fennel seeds showed high flavonoid content and antioxidant potential as well as the presence of a marker compound rutin. Pretreatment of HDF cells with the FEF (15–45 μg/ml) significantly protected against UV-B-induced cytotoxicity, endogenous enzymatic antioxidant depletion, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, and apoptotic morphological changes. Conclusion: The current study proved for the first time that the FEF of fennel seeds reduced oxidative stress through the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response elements pathway. Flavonoids from fennel seeds have a potential as UV-B protectants and can be explored against diseases, in which oxidative stress is closely implicated.
  3,176 276 -
Effect of contact load upon attrition-corrosion wear behavior of bio-composite materials: In vitro off-axis sliding contact-chewing simulation
Efe Cetin Yilmaz
January 2020, 7(1):17-22
Background: In recent years, the use of composite materials as biomaterials has been increasing in dentistry. It is important to perform in vitro experiments of biomaterials before living tissue. Aim: The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of contact load upon attrition-corrosion wear behavior of bio-composite materials: in vitro off-axis sliding contact chewing simulation. Material and Method: In this study, 2 mm × 12 mm (weight × diameter) cylindrical test specimens were prepared from Filtek Supreme and Clearfil AP-X bio-composite materials with different filler structure. The surface roughness and Vicker's Hardness values of the bio-composites were measured before the wear test procedures. Then, the test specimens were subjected to off-sliding abrasion test procedures under different mechanical loads in artificial saliva and citric acid medium. Wear volume loss of bio-composite materials was determined after wear test procedures using the three-dimensional noncontact profilometer. Results: As the mechanical loading increased, the loss of wear volume in both composite materials increased irrespective of test medium. However, this increase in wear volume loss in test specimens was more pronounced in the citric acid environment. Conclusion: As a result of, the organic matrix structure (such as Ba glass particle) of the composite material contributes to more volume loss in corrosive environment.
  3,203 226 3
Is three-parent IVF the answer to preventing mitochondrial defects?
Shloka Shetty
January-June 2021, 8(1):9-13
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as its name implies, is an embodiment of the mitochondrial genetic information that constitutes about 1% of the mammalian genome. It fills a vital niche in tracing matrilineality; the mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother and plays a crucial role in genealogical research. Even a single mutation in the mtDNA can have debilitating and life-altering consequences. Mothers carrying mtDNA mutations will inevitably pass it on to the future generation. Three-parent In vitro fertilization (IVF), a breakthrough technique, shows promising potential to prevent mothers with mtDNA defects from passing it on to their future generation, while also maintaining the genetic link to their posterity. In this review, I delve into the intricacies of this technique, compare and analyze the difference between maternal spindle transfer and pronuclear transfer, discuss the prospective therapeutic effects, and highlight the ethical concerns surrounding this procedure. Considering the various challenges and ethics of this contentious technique, the paper seeks to answer the rousing question – Is three-parent IVF the answer to preventing mitochondrial defects?
  3,041 364 -
Transplantation review: Liver, kidney, and pancreas transplantation
Rakesh Rai
July-December 2019, 6(2):78-81
  3,138 234 -
Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma manifesting as primary esophageal carcinoma: A rare case report
K Jayaprakash Shetty, HL Kishan Prasad, Shubha Bhat, Michelle Mathias, Vijith Shetty
January 2019, 6(1):34-36
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasizing to the esophagus and mimicking as a primary tumor of the esophagus is extremely rare, being present in <0.4% in some autopsy series. This report describes a case of 70-year-old male with metastatic HCC to esophagogastric junction causing diagnostic dilemma. An endoscopic examination revealed an ulcerative lesion in the lower end of the esophagus. The biopsy specimen obtained from a tumor revealed the pseudoglandular arrangement of tumor cells. Ultrasound abdomen showed liver nodule with biopsy confirming as HCC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the esophageal mass showed positivity for Hep par 1, Glypican-3, Arginase, CA 19-9, CK 19, CDX2, pCEA, SATB2, and Ki-67 having 70% positivity confirming the HCC. Among these IHC panels, all are specific markers of HCC, but CDX2 and SATB2 were aberrantly expressed in our case. He was started on six cycles of chemotherapy (apristar 125 mg, epirubicin 40 mg, oxaliplatin 100 mg, and capecitabine 500 mg). After 8 months of follow-up, he was symptomatically improved. However, later, the patient was lost to follow-up. The accurate pretreatment staging and then providing stage-appropriate treatment is crucial in optimizing esophageal and hepatocellular cancer outcomes. Cases of premortem-diagnosed esophageal metastasis from HCC are extremely rare. Our case was ideal for IHC, which plays an important role in arriving at proper cases. Furthermore, it confirmed and highlighted the rare manifestations of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  3,049 294 -
Identification of Uropathogens: A Journey from Conventional to Molecular Level
Trupti Bajpai, Maneesha Pandey, Meena Varma, Neelesh Gagrani, Ganesh Bhatambare
July-December 2020, 7(2):50-54
Background: During the course of bacterial infection, the rapid and accurate identification of the causative agent is essential to determine the effective treatment option. Now, the question arises, is it necessary to identify the microbial pathogens up to the species level? Objective: The present prospective study involving uropathogens has been designed to highlight the journey from well-adapted, inexpensive but time-consuming and labor-intensive gold-standard conventional (biochemical) diagnostic methods to the rapid and specific upcoming rival in the form of molecular methods (16s rRNA sequencing). Materials and Methods: The study was carried out for a period of 12 months. Clean catch, midstream urine samples from 1101 admitted patients clinically suspected of urinary tract infection (UTI) were subjected to microscopy and culture on blood agar, MacConkey agar, and UTI chromogenic media (HiMedia, Mumbai). The uropathogens isolated from the culture-positive samples were identified up to the species level by the conventional method (Biochemical testing). The isolates were further confirmed by automated method (Vitek 2-Compact System, BioMérieux Inc., France). If required, then, further confirmation was done by molecular method (16S rRNA sequencing) (Yaazh Xenomics, Mumbai and Chennai). Results: A total of 463 (42%) urine samples were found to be culture positive out of 1101 patient samples processed. Four hundred and eighty-nine uropathogens were isolated from 463 culture-positive samples (26 samples had mixed flora i.e., two pathogens per sample). Conclusions: Although genotypic characterization of bacterial pathogen is advantageous when compared to phenotypic method, it is recommendable to use the combination of a traditional culture-based assays and rapid molecular diagnostic tool.
  3,205 133 -
Impact of type and duration of use of antipsychotic drugs on plasma levels of selected acute-phase proteins in patients with major mental illnesses
Sheu Kadiri Rahamon, Kehinde Sola Akinlade, Olatunbosun Ganiyu Arinola, Saheed Ladipo Kakako, Victor Olufolahan Lasebikan
January 2020, 7(1):12-16
Background: Disorders of the hemostatic system such as hypercoagulation and hypofibrinolysis are clinical manifestations in patients with schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder. However, the role of the type of antipsychotic medication as well as the duration of use on disturbances in the hemostatic system is poorly understood. This study was, therefore, carried out to determine the possible impact of antipsychotic treatment as well as the duration of use on selected acute-phase proteins involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis. Materials and Methods: Plasma levels of fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were determined in 124 patients with major mental illnesses: schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder. Thereafter, the participants were grouped based on the type of antipsychotic medication (typical vs. atypical) and the duration of antipsychotic use. Results: Patients on typical antipsychotics had a slightly elevated level of PAI-1 but a similar level of fibrinogen when compared with patients on atypical antipsychotics. Furthermore, the median plasma levels of fibrinogen and PAI-1 in patients who have been on antipsychotic use for more than 10 years were slightly higher than in patients who have been on the drug for 10 years or less. Conclusion: It could be concluded from this study that patients on typical antipsychotics and those who have used any form of antipsychotics for more than 10 years might benefit from periodic assessment of markers of prothrombosis as it could facilitate early identification of those at risk of venous thromboembolism.
  3,067 206 -
An Overview on the Application of Nanodiagnostics in Cancer
Kavita Gala, Ekta Khattar
July-December 2020, 7(2):40-44
In the battle against cancer, timely diagnosis is critical for successful treatment. The major limitation in detecting cancer at early development stages is the unavailability of sensitive and specific detection methods. Nanobiology combines biology with physics and chemistry to generate several new areas such as nanodiagnostics and nanotheranostics. Nanodiagnostics involve the development of new strategies and innovations to enhance the current detection methods in tumor biology. Another important aspect of nanodiagnostics is to improve personalized cancer detection and real-time monitoring of treatments assisted by imaging modalities. Nanotheranostics combines therapy and diagnosis in a single model for cancer detection and treatment thus providing the advantage of targeted drug delivery and fewer side effects to normal tissues. In this review, we have outlined diverse nanoparticle systems for early cancer detection and therapy. A wide variety of nanomaterial-based approaches such as nanobubbles, quantum dots, liposomes, or nanotubes demonstrate huge potential in improving imaging methods to screen and monitor cancer progression. Although a significant amount of contributions have been directed to develop nanodiagnostics systems, they are still at preclinical stage. Thus, it is a dynamic area for research with encouraging development towards the clinical stage.
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Therapeutic Uses of Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID-19
Tarun Kumar Suvvari
July-December 2020, 7(2):60-61
  2,811 180 -
The outcomes of fetal cell microchimerism in the mother
Anushka Nikhil Alekar
January-June 2021, 8(1):1-8
The presence of small quantities of genetically heterogeneous cells in an organism is known as microchimerism. Fetal microchimerism is the presence of small quantities of fetal cells in the maternal system during and after pregnancy. Since these cells are semi-allogeneic in the mother's body, they have an impact on the mother's health. Recent studies suggest contradictory outcomes. Some suggest an involvement in autoimmune diseases and cancer. Others suggest involvement in tissue repair and wound healing. Fetal cells have been detected in maternal organs decades after pregnancy. It was found that these cells participate in the healing process post a chronic injury. In other cases, these cells initiate an immune response which may lead to the development of autoimmune diseases. Further, studies show that fetal cells have been discovered in the tumor microenvironment, either aiding in cancer development or eradicating the cancer cells. Here, I review the different outcomes that can occur in the female body because of fetal cell microchimerism. I discuss the presence of fetal cells in maternal organs such as the heart and the central nervous system organs and their involvement in disease development and tissue repair in the mother.
  2,642 345 -
The Presence of gram-negative bacteria carrying the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene on abiotic touch surfaces at a tertiary care center
Archana Agrawal, Chakrakodi N Varun, Anjali Shette, Daisy Vanitha John, Ravikumar Raju
January 2020, 7(1):23-27
Objectives: New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), which has emerged as a major mechanism of resistance to carbapenems in Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), challenges effective patient management of health-care systems. Nonpathogenic environmental bacteria present on abiotic touch surfaces in hospitals may serve as reservoirs for the NDM gene and contribute to the emergence and spread of resistance to carbapenems. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of NDM-positive GNB in the environment of a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight swab samples were collected from various touch surfaces in 12 different wards between January and February 2017. The swabs were cultured in nutrient broth and subsequently subcultured onto McConkey agar plates. Both lactose and nonlactose fermenting colonies grown were identified by biochemical methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect NDM carriage. Results: Twenty-seven (46%) of the samples were positive for microbial growth, of which 21 (36%) samples yielded bacterial growth on McConkey agar plates. Of the 30 isolates identified, 25 (83%) were nonfermenting GNB (NFGNB) and 5 (17%) were Klebsiella spp., of which 1 was Klebsiella oxytoca. NFGNB were isolated mostly from tables and infusion stands in various wards. Four of the five Klebsiella spp. were from patients' beds. Two isolates of NFGNB and one Klebsiella spp. were positive for the NDM gene. Conclusion: In addition to serving as potential pathogens of nosocomial infections, environmental bacteria present on abiotic touch surfaces in hospitals may serve as reservoirs for the NDM gene.
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Surfactant Modified Graphene Oxide for the Detection of Dopamine
Diptesh Naik, Bhanudas Naik, Akshay Salkar, Vrushali S Joshi
October 2018, 5(2):64-73
A synthesis and characterization of a surfactant functionalize graphene oxide, and its potential applications for biosensor are presented. Graphene oxide was prepared using improved Hummer's method and modified with two different surfactants viz. cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) by chemical method. The formation of the product was confirmed by characterizing it with UV-Viz, IR spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Here, we report simple and low cost method to develop electrochemical dopamine sensor by drop-casting catalysts on graphite rod conducting phase. A developed sensor is used for the voltammetric detection of the micro - millimolar quantity of dopamine without any fouling of electrode surface. The kinetics of electron transfer in the dopamine oxidation reaction on the surface of a catalysts are investigated.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
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