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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-June 2021
Volume 8 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-28

Online since Wednesday, June 30, 2021

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The outcomes of fetal cell microchimerism in the mother p. 1
Anushka Nikhil Alekar
The presence of small quantities of genetically heterogeneous cells in an organism is known as microchimerism. Fetal microchimerism is the presence of small quantities of fetal cells in the maternal system during and after pregnancy. Since these cells are semi-allogeneic in the mother's body, they have an impact on the mother's health. Recent studies suggest contradictory outcomes. Some suggest an involvement in autoimmune diseases and cancer. Others suggest involvement in tissue repair and wound healing. Fetal cells have been detected in maternal organs decades after pregnancy. It was found that these cells participate in the healing process post a chronic injury. In other cases, these cells initiate an immune response which may lead to the development of autoimmune diseases. Further, studies show that fetal cells have been discovered in the tumor microenvironment, either aiding in cancer development or eradicating the cancer cells. Here, I review the different outcomes that can occur in the female body because of fetal cell microchimerism. I discuss the presence of fetal cells in maternal organs such as the heart and the central nervous system organs and their involvement in disease development and tissue repair in the mother.
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Is three-parent IVF the answer to preventing mitochondrial defects? p. 9
Shloka Shetty
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as its name implies, is an embodiment of the mitochondrial genetic information that constitutes about 1% of the mammalian genome. It fills a vital niche in tracing matrilineality; the mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother and plays a crucial role in genealogical research. Even a single mutation in the mtDNA can have debilitating and life-altering consequences. Mothers carrying mtDNA mutations will inevitably pass it on to the future generation. Three-parent In vitro fertilization (IVF), a breakthrough technique, shows promising potential to prevent mothers with mtDNA defects from passing it on to their future generation, while also maintaining the genetic link to their posterity. In this review, I delve into the intricacies of this technique, compare and analyze the difference between maternal spindle transfer and pronuclear transfer, discuss the prospective therapeutic effects, and highlight the ethical concerns surrounding this procedure. Considering the various challenges and ethics of this contentious technique, the paper seeks to answer the rousing question – Is three-parent IVF the answer to preventing mitochondrial defects?
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Effect of different thermal change tests of micro tensile strength behavior bio-composite materials; In vitro study p. 14
Efe Çetin Yilmaz, Recep Sadeler
Background: The thermal changes in environments that composite materials are exposed to has a great effect on fatigue and wear behavior. Aim: Micro-cracks and interfacial deformations occur in the composite material structure because of heating and cooling environments occurring on material surfaces. Considering the environment to which bio-composite materials used in the human body are exposed, it is inevitable that they are exposed to a thermal change cycle environment. Material and Method: In this study, the mechanical behaviors of Silorane, X-Trafil and Valux-Plus bio-composite materials were examined after being exposed to thermal cycles in an artificial mouth environment in the temperature range of minimum 5 °C and maximum 65 °C. Micro-tensile strengths of bio-composite materials after thermal cycle test procedures were determined using a universal micro tensile tester device. In addition, microstructural analyzes of bio-composite materials were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Within the scope of the data obtained as a result of this study, it was concluded that the thermal changes in environments significantly affects the micro-shrinkage behavior of bio-composite materials. Conclusion: The behavior of the matrix structure of the composite material significantly affected the formation of micro cracks.
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Clinical governance in radiologic practice: Evaluating the appropriateness of radiologic investigation considering patient clinical information using the radiology request form p. 20
Ebbi Donald Robinson, Olukumni Yetunde Ijeruh, Woroma Wonodi, Rufus Abam
Introduction: Clinical governance in radiology is an improved quality assurance program where the patient well-being is the central focus concerning radiologic service using the radiology request form (RRF). Methodology: The study was a 6-month descriptive study conducted from January 2020 to June 2020. A total of 2053 request forms were collated retrospectively and evaluated to ascertain the appropriateness of the clinical information with the investigation requested. A 3 stage Likert scale of appropriate somewhat appropriate and inappropriate was used and the data analyzed using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) IBM Corp. version 23.0 (Armonk, NY: USA). The results were expressed in percentages and frequencies and presented in tables and charts. Results: Of the 2053 request forms, X-rays constitute 32.54% while ultrasound scans and computed tomography (CT) investigations constitute 43.21% and 5.46%, respectively. Clinical information was indicated in 51.39% of the RRF, out of which 75.95% of the clinical information were adequate while 13.93% were not in keeping with the investigation. Ultrasound scan request had the highest inappropriate clinical information (54.68%) followed by plain radiography request (41.73%) whereas all the CT request was in tandem with the investigation. Conclusion: There are occasional clinical information and radiologic request mismatch. This may be due to the filling of the RRF by medical interns or nonmedical personnel such as allied health workers with less knowledge on radiologic imaging modalities. The audit recommends proper supervision of young clinicians and continues medical education concerning the rational use of imaging modality.
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A case of COVID-19 triggered Rhino-Orbital Pulmonary Mucormycosis in Central India p. 25
Chandra Pratap Singh Rathore, Shirin Ansari, Trupti Bajpai
Mucormycosis is a rare but fatal, invasive opportunistic fungal infection generally described among immunocompromised individuals. The ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has severely compromised the immune system of patients thereby making them vulnerable to mucormycosis, especially when they are lined up with associated comorbidities. Here, we present a case of one such 64-year-old male patient being on corticosteroids and a case of long-standing diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease. COVID-19 triggered the mucormycosis in this patient thereby leading to a condition we have described as rhino-orbital pulmonary mucormycosis.
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